Prospective trends in cheese and butter manufacturing for Black Earth region dairy cluster

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Prospective trends in cheese and butter manufacturing for Black Earth region dairy cluster

Ovsyannikova G. V., Gridyaeva N. I.

Analysis of Voronezh Region dairy complex in terms of dairy cluster is given. Breeding resources and genetic potentialities of different breeds are shown. Breed influence on milk productivity, composition and technological properties is analyzed. Population productive qualities analysis demonstrates that in Voronezh Region 96.7% of cattle stock in protein content and 97.8% of cattle stock in fat content exceed basic values by 10-15%. Polymorphism of kappa-casein gene has been studied in servicing bulls used in Voronezh Region taking into account their linear appurtenance. Research reveals that 46 heads have AA genotype (50.0%), 39 heads have AB genotype (42.4%), whereas only 7 heads have BB genotype (7.6%). A-allelic frequency in bulls of all breeds in population reaches 0.77 on the average; B-allelic frequency is 0.57. Red Spotted, Simmental, Black Spotted Holstein bulls carry BB homozygous genotype, which has not been found in Red Spotted Holstein bulls. Cross-linear study reveals that bulls of Mountwick Chieftain and Reflection Souvering lines carry desired BB genotype, whereas bulls of Vis Back Ideal do not possess it. Maximum number of desired homozygous BB genotype has been discovered in bulls of Red Spotted breed (Voronezh type, with B-allelic frequency of 0.65). Research results show that milk received from Red Spotted cows (population share is 64.8%) born from bull having kappa-casein B-allele demonstrates better technological properties. Protein content in milk of these cows exceeds other genotypes’ milk-protein index by 0.08-0.12%, fat content – by 0.1-0.12%; milk clots faster by 10-14 minutes, that means better properties for cheese-making. Cows born from bull having AA homozygous genotype demonstrate higher level of milk productivity. Data obtained allow considering bull’s genotype in kappa-casein as extra-criterion for cattle stock selection. In order to improve cheese-making properties of milk one should to maintain proper number of animals carrying kappa casein B gene allele in their genome in herds.

Keywords: dairy cluster, breed, milk-raw material, kappa-casein genotype, cheese usefulness

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