Using global gene pool of cattle in the formation of raw materials base for dairy industry of Black Earth region

DOI: 10.21047/1606-4313-2017-16-1-7-12
UDC 636.22/28.082.26 (571.15)

Using global gene pool of cattle in the formation of raw materials base for dairy industry of Black Earth region

Ovsyannikova G. V.

For citation: Овсянникова Г.В. Использование мирового генофонда молочного скота в создании сырьевой базы молочной промышленности Черноземья // Вестник Международной академии холода. 2017. № 1. С. 7-12

Analysis of Voronezh Region dairy complex in terms of intensive technology use is given. Problems of dairy farming growth in 2015-2020 are analyzed.  The research focuses on the study of qualitative milk composition of Red Pied, Holstein, Montbeliarde, and Jersey cows of various origins in the period of adaptation to new environmental conditions. The findings suggest that intergroup differences do exist. Raw materials are the most important component in the production of dairy products. Long-term studies carried out to evaluate physico-chemical and technological properties of milk indicate that milk obtained from caws of different breeds, in geography-specific conditions, is of good quality and matches the optimum values for the production of dairy products. Milk from Red Pied, Montbeliarde, and Jersey cows is rich in protein content, easily coagulated, so it is extremely valuable raw material for cheese production. Analysis of the population productive qualities showed that the most intensive animals are those of the Jersey breedin the conditions of Voronezh region.Polymorphism of kappa-casein gene has been studied in servicing bulls used in Voronezh Region taking into account their linear appurtenance. Research reveals that 48 heads have AA genotype (44.9%), 44 heads have AB genotype (41.0%), whereas only 15 heads have BB genotype (14.0%). The average A-allelic frequency among bulls of all breeds in the population is 0.76; B-allelic frequency – 0.63. The maximum number of desired homozygous of BB genotype has been discovered among bulls of Montbeliarde and Jerzey breeds (B-allelic frequency is 0.6 and 0.9 respectively). The relationship between lactation performance and reproductive ability of high-producing cows is shown. The average duration of the use of cows in the farms is 3 lactation periods.

Keywords: dairy cattle, breed, milk–raw material, technological properties.

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