Lactic acid bacteria in the production of sour ales

DOI: 10.17586/1606-4313-2018-17-2-61-70
UDC 663

Lactic acid bacteria in the production of sour ales

Ponomareva O.I., Borisova E.V., Prochorthik I.P.

For citation: Ponomareva O.I., Borisova E.V., Prokhorchik I.P. Lactic acid bacteria in the production of sour ales. Vestnik Mezhdunarodnoi akademii kholoda. 2018. No 2. p. 61-70

Various technologies used for the preparation of sour ales using genus Lactobacillus and the species Pediococcus damnosus are presented in the article, both separately and in combination with yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and genus Berttanomuces at various stages of the production process - mashing, wort preparation, fermentation. Special requirements for wort, malt, unmalted materials, and hops used in the production of sour ales are considered. Special malts (biscuit, melanoidine, burned and other varieties) are not recommended because of their flavors overshadow the ones synthesized by lactic acid bacteria. The recommended raw materials for sour ales are specified. The influence of raw materials properties on the sensory profile of the finished drink is analyzed. The conditions for metabolic activity of lactic acid bacteria in the production of sour ales are determined. In particular, wort should be made of amber malt,with dry matter content not exceeding 10%. Taking into hop acids inhibiting lactic acid bacteria hoppingof the wort should not exceed 10 units ofI BU as hop acids and hop oilsprevent the activity of gram-positive bacteria, lactic acid bacteriabeing of this type. The properties of homo and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria discussed and the substances synthesized by them during lactic fermentation are exemplified.Recommendations on the use oflactic acid bacteriaat the different stages of manufacturing heterofermentative to provide the desired flavor profile to the beverageare given. For various types of lactic acid bacteria, their biochemical properties are given, which make it possible to give practical recommendations on the use, which to a large extent makes it possible. The use of lactic acid bacteria at the following stages of brewing is analyzed: mashing; wort preparationfor acidification before fermentation; main and secondary fermentation; secondary fermentation after main fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae; secondary fermentation with the addition of Brettanomyces. The main approaches to the technology of mixing beer varieties are given, which make it possible to give the beverage the complexity of flavor and taste. The methods of using grain and acid malt for acidification of mash or wort are considered, which are an alternative to the use of lactic acid bacteria.The advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed.

Keywords: sour ales, malt, non-soluble materials, hops, fermentation, wort, lactic acid bacteria.

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