Functional and prebiotic properties of buckwheat

UDC 664.78

Functional and prebiotic properties of buckwheat

Buchilina Alina S., Gunkova P.I., Ishevskii A.L. , Barakova N.V., Moskvicheva E.V.

For citation: Buchilina A.S., Gunkova P.I., Ishevskiy A.L., Barakova N.V., Moskvicheva E.V., Fomicheva T.I. Functional and prebiotic properties of buckwheat. Journal of International Academy of Refrigeration. 2021. No 4. p.45-52. DOI: 10.17586/1606-4313-2021-20-4-45-52

Buckwheat seeds are characterized by a high content of high biological value proteins, dietary fiber, resistant starch, flavonoids, and chiro-inositol derivatives, due to which buckwheat has unique functional and prebiotic properties. It has been shown that buckwheat seeds and buckwheat groats produced from the seeds exhibit anti-diabetic, cholesterol-lowering and hypotensive activities, anti-microbial, antioxidant, antitumor, and prebiotic properties. The research data show that active anti-diabetic components of buckwheat seeds are resistant starch, D-chiro-inositol, and phagopyritol. A low level of digestible starch also contributes to the anti-diabetic properties of buckwheat seeds. It has been shown that buckwheat protein helps regulate cholesterol metabolism by lowering total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins. The hypotensive properties of buckwheat seeds are determined by their specific proteins and peptides that inhibit the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE. Several peptides obtained from buckwheat protein have anti-microbial activity against pathogenic microscopic fungi and bacteria. The antioxidant activity of buckwheat seeds is higher than in other cereals because of the significant content of phenolic compounds. Peptides and hydrolysates of buckwheat protein and polysaccharides of seeds exhibit antitumor properties. They inhibit the growth of cancer cells and help increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes, lower the level of free radicals, and strengthen the body's immunity. Buckwheat seeds have prebiotic properties because of the high content of dietary fiber and resistant starch, which reach the large intestine and act as a substrate for probiotic microorganisms. Buckwheat protein also contributes to the development of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the intestine. It has been shown that buckwheat groats, produced from buckwheat seeds, can be the base for the food products to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, lower cholesterol levels in the body, and improve the intestinal microflora.

Keywords: buckwheat seed, buckwheat groats, functional food product, prebiotics, prevention of diabetes, cholesterol lowering activity, prevention of obesity.

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